Content Dimensions

Introduction

Content dimensions are a generic concept to have multiple variants of a node. A dimension can be anything like “language”, “country” or “customer segment”. The content repository supports any number of dimensions. Node variants can have multiple values for each dimension and are connected by the same identifier. This enables a single-tree approach for localization, personalization or other variations of the content in a site.

If content is rendered and thus fetched from the content repository, it will always happen in a context. This context contains a list of values for each dimension that specifies which dimension values are visible and in which fallback order these should apply. So the same node variants can yield different results depending on the context that is used to fetch the nodes.

Dimension presets assign a name to the list of dimension values and are used to display dimensions in the user interface or in the routing. They represent the allowed combinations of dimension values.

Tip

See the Translating content cookbook for a step-by-step guide to create a multi-lingual website with Neos.

Dimension Configuration

The available dimensions and presets can be configured via settings:

TYPO3:
  TYPO3CR:
    contentDimensions:

      # Content dimension "language" serves for translation of content into different languages. Its value specifies
      # the language or language variant by means of a locale.
      'language':
        # The default dimension that is applied when creating nodes without specifying a dimension
        default: 'mul_ZZ'
        # The default preset to use if no URI segment was given when resolving languages in the router
        defaultPreset: 'all'
        label: 'Language'
        icon: 'icon-language'
        presets:
          'all':
            label: 'All languages'
            values: ['mul_ZZ']
            uriSegment: 'all'
          # Example for additional languages:

          'en_GB':
            label: 'English (Great Britain)'
            values: ['en_GB', 'en_ZZ', 'mul_ZZ']
            uriSegment: 'gb'
          'de':
            label: 'German (Germany)'
            values: ['de_DE', 'de_ZZ', 'mul_ZZ']
            uriSegment: 'de'

The TYPO3CR and Neos packages don’t provide any dimension configuration per default.

Preset Constraints

Neos can be configured to work with more than one content dimension. A typical use case is to define separate dimensions for language and country: pages with product descriptions may be available in English and German, but the English content needs to be different for the markets target to the UK or Germany respectively. However, not all possible combinations of language and country make sense and thus should not be accessible. The allowed combinations of content dimension presets can be controlled via the preset constraints feature.

Consider a website which has dedicated content for the US, Germany and France. The content for each country is available in English and their respective local language. The following configuration would make sure that the combinations “German – US”, “German - France”, “French - US” and “French - Germany” are not allowed:

TYPO3:
  TYPO3CR:
    contentDimensions:
      'language':
        default: 'en'
        defaultPreset: 'en'
        label: 'Language'
        icon: 'icon-language'
        presets:
          'en':
            label: 'English'
            values: ['en']
            uriSegment: 'en'
          'de':
            label: 'German'
            values: ['de']
            uriSegment: 'de'
            constraints:
              country:
                'us': false
                'fr': false
          'fr':
            label: 'French'
            values: ['fr']
            uriSegment: 'fr'
            constraints:
              country:
                'us': false
                'de': false
      'country':
        default: 'us'
        defaultPreset: 'us'
        label: 'Country'
        icon: 'icon-globe'
        presets:
          'us':
            label: 'United States'
            values: ['us']
            uriSegment: 'us'
          'de':
            label: 'Germany'
            values: ['de']
            uriSegment: 'de'
          'fr':
            label: 'France'
            values: ['fr']
            uriSegment: 'fr'

Instead of configuring every constraint preset explicitly, it is also possible to allow or disallow all presets of a given dimension by using the wildcard identifier. The following configuration has the same effect like in the previous example:

TYPO3:
  TYPO3CR:
    contentDimensions:
      'language':
        default: 'en'
        defaultPreset: 'en'
        label: 'Language'
        icon: 'icon-language'
        presets:
          'en':
            label: 'English'
            values: ['en']
            uriSegment: 'en'
          'de':
            label: 'German'
            values: ['de']
            uriSegment: 'de'
            constraints:
              country:
                'de': true
                '*': false
          'fr':
            label: 'French'
            values: ['fr']
            uriSegment: 'fr'
            constraints:
              country:
                'fr': true
                '*': false
      'country':
        default: 'us'
        defaultPreset: 'us'
        label: 'Country'
        icon: 'icon-globe'
        presets:
          'us':
            label: 'United States'
            values: ['us']
            uriSegment: 'us'
          'de':
            label: 'Germany'
            values: ['de']
            uriSegment: 'de'
          'fr':
            label: 'France'
            values: ['fr']
            uriSegment: 'fr'

While the examples only defined constraints in the language dimension configuration, it is perfectly possible to additionally or exclusively define constraints in country or other dimensions.

Migration of existing content

Adjusting content dimensions configuration can lead to issues for existing content. When a new content dimension is added, a corresponding value needs to be added to existing content, otherwise no nodes would be found.

This can be done with a node migration which is included in the TYPO3.TYPO3CR package:

./flow node:migrate 20150716212459

This migration adds missing content dimensions by setting the default value on all existing nodes, if not already set.

Alternatively a custom node migration can be created allowing flexibility and constraints. See Node Migration Reference.

Routing

Neos provides a route-part handler that will include a prefix with the value of the uriSegment setting of a dimension preset for all configured dimensions. This means URIs will not contain any prefix by default as long as no content dimension is configured. Multiple dimensions are joined with a _ character, so the uriSegment value must not include an underscore.

The default preset can have an empty uriSegment value. The following example will lead to URLs that do not contain en if the en_US preset is active, but will show the uriSegment for other languages that are defined as well:

TYPO3:
  TYPO3CR:
    contentDimensions:

      'language':
        default: 'en'
        defaultPreset: 'en_US'
        label: 'Language'
        icon: 'icon-language'
        presets:
          'en':
            label: 'English (US)'
            values: ['en_US']
            uriSegment: ''

The only limitation is that all segments must be unique across all dimensions. If you need non-unique segments, you can switch support for non-empty dimensions off:

TYPO3:
  Neos:
    routing:
      supportEmptySegmentForDimensions: FALSE

Limitations

In Neos 1.2 node variants can only be created by having a common fallback value in the presets. This means a node can only be translated to some other dimension value if it “shined” through from a fallback value.

In Neos 2.0, it is possible to create node variants across dimension borders, i.e. to translate an English version of a Document to German, without having fall-backs from German to English or vice versa.