Inside TypoScript

In this chapter, TypoScript will be explained in a step-by-step fashion, focusing on the different internal parts, the syntax of these and the semantics.

TypoScript is fundamentally a hierarchical, prototype based processing language:

  • It is hierarchical because the content it should render is also hierarchically structured.
  • It is prototype based because it allows to define properties for all instances of a certain TypoScript object type. It is also possible to define properties not for all instances, but only for instances inside a certain hierarchy. Thus, the prototype definitions are hierarchically-scoped as well.
  • It is a processing language because it processes the values in the context into a single output value.

In the first part of this chapter, the syntactic and semantic features of the TypoScript, Eel and FlowQuery languages are explained. Then, the focus will be on the design decisions and goals of TypoScript, to provide a better understanding of the main objectives while designing the language.

Goals of TypoScript

TypoScript should cater to both planned and unplanned extensibility. This means it should provide ways to adjust and extend its behavior in places where this is to be expected. At the same time it should also be possible to adjust and extend in any other place without having to apply dirty hacks.

TypoScript should be usable in standalone, extensible applications outside of Neos. The use of a flexible language for configuration of (rendering) behavior is beneficial for most complex applications.

TypoScript should make out-of-band rendering easy to do. This should ease content generation for technologies like AJAX or edge-side includes (ESI).

TypoScript should make multiple renderings of the same content possible. It should allow placement of the same content (but possibly in different representations) on the same page multiple times.

TypoScript’s syntax should be familiar to the user, so that existing knowledge can be leveraged. To achieve this, TypoScript takes inspiration from CSS selectors, jQuery and other technologies that are in widespread use in modern frontend development.

TypoScript files

TypoScript is read from files. In the context of Neos, some of these files are loaded automatically, and TypoScript files can be split into parts to organize things as needed.

Automatic TypoScript file inclusion

All TypoScript files are expected to be in the folder Resources/Private/TypoScript when it comes to automatic inclusion.

Neos will include the Root.ts2 file of all packages listed in the Setting TYPO3.Neos.typoScript.autoInclude in the order of packages as returned by the package management.

Neos will then always include the Root.ts2 file of the current site package.

Manual TypoScript file inclusion

In any TypoScript file further files can be included using the include statement. The path is either relative to the current file or can be given with the resource wrapper:

include: NodeTypes/CustomElements.ts2
include: resource://Acme.Demo/Private/TypoScript/Quux.ts2

In addition to giving exact filenames, globbing is possible in two variants:

# Include all .ts2 files in NodeTypes
include: NodeTypes/*

# Include all .ts2 files in NodeTypes and it's subfolders recursively
include: NodeTypes/**/*

The first includes all TypoScript files in the NodeTypes folder, the latter will recursively include all TypoScript files in NodeTypes and any folders below.

The globbing can be combined with the resource wrapper:

include: resource://Acme.Demo/Private/TypoScript/NodeTypes/*
include: resource://Acme.Demo/Private/TypoScript/**/*

TypoScript Objects

TypoScript is a language to describe TypoScript objects. A TypoScript object has some properties which are used to configure the object. Additionally, a TypoScript object has access to a context, which is a list of variables. The goal of a TypoScript object is to take the variables from the context, and transform them to the desired output, using its properties for configuration as needed.

Thus, TypoScript objects take some input which is given through the context and the properties, and produce a single output value. Internally, they can modify the context, and trigger rendering of nested TypoScript objects: This way, a big task (like rendering a whole web page) can be split into many smaller tasks (render a single image, render some text, ...): The results of the small tasks are then put together again, forming the final end result.

TypoScript object nesting is a fundamental principle of TypoScript. As TypoScript objects call nested TypoScript objects, the rendering process forms a tree of TypoScript objects.

TypoScript objects are implemented by a PHP class, which is instantiated at runtime. A single PHP class is the basis for many TypoScript objects. We will highlight the exact connection between TypoScript objects and their PHP implementations later.

A TypoScript object can be instantiated by assigning it to a TypoScript path, such as:

foo = Page
# or:
my.object = Text
# or:
my.image = TYPO3.Neos.ContentTypes:Image

The name of the to-be-instantiated TypoScript prototype is listed without quotes.

By convention, TypoScript paths (such as my.object) are written in lowerCamelCase, while TypoScript prototypes (such as TYPO3.Neos.ContentTypes:Image) are written in UpperCamelCase.

It is possible to set properties on the newly created TypoScript objects:

foo.myProperty1 = 'Some Property which Page can access'
my.object.myProperty1 = "Some other property"
my.image.width = ${q(node).property('foo')}

Property values that are strings have to be quoted (with either single or double quotes). A property can also be an Eel expression (which are explained in Eel, FlowQuery and Fizzle.)

To reduce typing overhead, curly braces can be used to “abbreviate” long TypoScript paths:

my {
  image = Image
  image.width = 200

  object {
    myProperty1 = 'some property'

Instantiating a TypoScript object and setting properties on it in a single pass is also possible. All three examples mean exactly the same:

someImage = Image = 'bar'

# Instantiate object, set property one after each other
someImage = Image
someImage {
  foo = 'bar'

# Instantiate an object and set properties directly
someImage = Image {
  foo = 'bar'

TypoScript Objects are Side-Effect Free

When TypoScript objects are rendered, they are allowed to modify the TypoScript context (they can add or override variables); and can invoke other TypoScript objects. After rendering, however, the parent TypoScript object must make sure to clean up the context, so that it contains exactly the state it had before the rendering.

The API helps to enforce this, as the TypoScript context is a stack: The only thing the developer of a TypoScript object needs to make sure is that if he adds some variable to the stack, effectively creating a new stack frame, he needs to remove exactly this stack frame after rendering again.

This means that a TypoScript object can only manipulate TypoScript objects below it, but not following or preceding it.

In order to enforce this, TypoScript objects are furthermore only allowed to communicate through the TypoScript Context; and they are never allowed to be invoked directly: Instead, all invocations need to be done through the TypoScript Runtime.

All these constraints make sure that a TypoScript object is side-effect free, leading to an important benefit: If somebody knows the exact path towards a TypoScript object together with its context, it can be rendered in a stand-alone manner, exactly as if it was embedded in a bigger element. This enables, for example, rendering parts of pages with different cache life- times, or the effective implementation of AJAX or ESI handlers reloading only parts of a website.

TypoScript Prototypes

When a TypoScript object is instantiated (i.e. when you type someImage = Image) the TypoScript Prototype for this object is copied and is used as a basis for the new object. The prototype is defined using the following syntax:

prototype(MyImage) {
        width = '500px'
        height = '600px'

When the above prototype is instantiated, the instantiated object will have all the properties of the copied prototype. This is illustrated through the following example:

someImage = MyImage
# now, someImage will have a width of 500px and a height of 600px

someImage.width = '100px'
# now, we have overridden the height of "someImage" to be 100px.

Prototype- vs. class-based languages

There are generally two major “flavours” of object-oriented languages. Most languages (such as PHP, Ruby, Perl, Java, C++) are class-based, meaning that they explicitly distinguish between the place where behavior for a given object is defined (the “class”) and the runtime representation which contains the data (the “instance”).

Other languages such as JavaScript are prototype-based, meaning that there is no distinction between classes and instances: At object creation time, all properties and methods of the object’s prototype (which roughly corresponds to a “class”) are copied (or otherwise referenced) to the instance.

TypoScript is a prototype-based language because it copies the TypoScript Prototype to the instance when an object is evaluated.

Prototypes in TypoScript are mutable, which means that they can easily be modified:

prototype(MyYouTube) {
        width = '100px'
        height = '500px'

# you can change the width/height
prototype(MyYouTube).width = '400px'
# or define new properties:
prototype(MyYouTube).showFullScreen = ${true}

Defining and instantiating a prototype from scratch is not the only way to define and instantiate them. You can also use an existing TypoScript prototype as basis for a new one when needed. This can be done by inheriting from a TypoScript prototype using the < operator:

prototype(MyImage) < prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Content)

# now, the MyImage prototype contains all properties of the Template
# prototype, and can be further customized.

This implements prototype inheritance, meaning that the “subclass” (MyImage in the example above) and the “parent class (Content) are still attached to each other: If a property is added to the parent class, this also applies to the subclass, as in the following example:

prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Content).fruit = 'apple'
prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Content).meal = 'dinner'

prototype(MyImage) < prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Content)
# now, MyImage also has the properties "fruit = apple" and "meal = dinner"

prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Content).fruit = 'Banana'
# because MyImage *extends* Content, MyImage.fruit equals 'Banana' as well.

prototype(MyImage).meal = 'breakfast'
prototype(TYPO3.TypoScript:Content).meal = 'supper'
# because MyImage now has an *overridden* property "meal", the change of
# the parent class' property is not reflected in the MyImage class

Prototype inheritance can only be defined globally, i.e. with a statement of the following form:

prototype(Foo) < prototype(Bar)

It is not allowed to nest prototypes when defining prototype inheritance, so the following examples are not valid TypoScript and will result in an exception:

prototype(Foo) < some.prototype(Bar)
other.prototype(Foo) < prototype(Bar)
prototype(Foo).prototype(Bar) < prototype(Baz)

While it would be theoretically possible to support this, we have chosen not to do so in order to reduce complexity and to keep the rendering process more understandable. We have not yet seen a TypoScript example where a construct such as the above would be needed.

Hierarchical TypoScript Prototypes

One way to flexibly adjust the rendering of a TypoScript object is done through modifying its Prototype in certain parts of the rendering tree. This is possible because TypoScript prototypes are hierarchical, meaning that prototype(...) can be part of any TypoScript path in an assignment; even multiple times:

prototype(Foo).bar = 'baz'
prototype(Foo).some.thing = 'baz2'

some.path.prototype(Foo).some = 'baz2'

prototype(Foo).prototype(Bar).some = 'baz2'
prototype(Foo).left.prototype(Bar).some = 'baz2'
  • prototype(Foo).bar is a simple, top-level prototype property assignment. It means: For all objects of type Foo, set property bar. The second example is another variant of this pattern, just with more nesting levels inside the property assignment.
  • some.path.prototype(Foo).some is a prototype property assignment inside some.path. It means: For all objects of type Foo which occur inside the TypoScript path some.path, the property some is set.
  • prototype(Foo).prototype(Bar).some is a prototype property assignment inside another prototype. It means: For all objects of type Bar which occur somewhere inside an object of type Foo, the property some is set.
  • This can both be combined, as in the last example inside prototype(Foo).left.prototype(Bar).some.

Internals of hierarchical prototypes

A TypoScript object is side-effect free, which means that it can be rendered deterministically knowing only its TypoScript path and the context. In order to make this work with hierarchical prototypes, we need to encode the types of all TypoScript objects above the current one into the current path. This is done using angular brackets:


When this path is rendered, a1/a2 is rendered as a TypoScript object of type Foo – which is needed to apply the prototype inheritance rules correctly.

Those paths are rarely visible on the “outside” of the rendering process, but might at times appear in exception messages if rendering fails. For those cases it is helpful to know their semantics.

Bottom line: It is not important to know exactly how the a rendering TypoScript object’s TypoScript path is constructed. Just pass it on, without modification to render a single element out of band.

Namespaces of TypoScript objects

The benefits of namespacing apply just as well to TypoScript objects as they apply to other languages. Namespacing helps to organize the code and avoid name clashes.

In TypoScript the namespace of a prototype is given when the prototype is declared. The following declares a YouTube prototype in the Acme.Demo namespace:

prototype(Acme.Demo:YouTube) {
        width = '100px'
        height = '500px'

The namespace is, by convention, the package key of the package in which the TypoScript resides.

Fully qualified identifiers can be used everywhere an identifier is used:

prototype(TYPO3.Neos:ContentCollection) < prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Collection)

In Neos TypoScript a default namespace of TYPO3.Neos is set. So whenever Page is used in TypoScript within Neos, it is a shortcut for TYPO3.Neos:Page.

Custom namespace aliases can be defined using the following syntax:

namespace: Foo = Acme.Demo

# the following two lines are equivalent now
video = Acme.Demo:YouTube
video = Foo:YouTube


These declarations are not scoped to the file they are in, but apply globally (at least currently, we plan to change that in the future). So you should be careful there!

Setting Properties On a TypoScript Object

Although the TypoScript object can read its context directly, it is good practice to instead use properties for configuration:

# imagine there is a property "foo=bar" inside the TypoScript context at this point
myObject = MyObject

# explicitly take the "foo" variable's value from the context and pass it into the "foo"
# property of myObject. This way, the flow of data is more visible. = ${foo}

While myObject could rely on the assumption that there is a foo variable inside the TypoScript context, it has no way (besides written documentation) to communicate this to the outside world.

Therefore, a TypoScript object’s implementation should only use properties of itself to determine its output, and be independent of what is stored in the context.

However, in the prototype of a TypoScript object it is perfectly legal to store the mapping between the context variables and TypoScript properties, such as in the following example:

# this way, an explicit default mapping between a context variable and a property of the
# TypoScript object is created.
prototype(MyObject).foo = ${foo}

To sum it up: When implementing a TypoScript object, it should not access its context variables directly, but instead use a property. In the TypoScript object’s prototype, a default mapping between a context variable and the prototype can be set up.

Manipulating the TypoScript Context

The TypoScript context can be manipulated directly through the use of the @context meta-property:

myObject = MyObject = ${foo * 2}

In the above example, there is now an additional context variable bar with twice the value of foo.

This functionality is especially helpful if there are strong conventions regarding the TypoScript context variables. This is often the case in standalone TypoScript applications, but for Neos, this functionality is hardly ever used.


Processors allow the manipulation of values in TypoScript properties. A processor is applied to a property using the @process meta-property:

myObject = MyObject {
        property = 'some value'
        property.@process.1 = ${'before ' + value + ' after'}
# results in 'before some value after'

Multiple processors can be used, their execution order is defined by the numeric position given in the TypoScript after @process. In the example above a @process.2 would run on the results of @process.1.

Additionally, an extended syntax can be used as well:

myObject = MyObject {
        property = 'some value'
        property.@process.someWrap {
                expression = ${'before ' + value + ' after'}
                @position = 'start'

This allows to use string keys for the processor name, and support @position arguments as explained for Arrays.

Processors are Eel Expressions or TypoScript objects operating on the value property of the context. Additionally, they can access the current TypoScript object they are operating on as this.


Conditions can be added to all values to prevent evaluation of the value. A condition is applied to a property using the @if meta-property:

myObject = Menu {
        @if.1 = ${q(node).property('showMenu') == true}
# results in the menu object only being evaluated if the node's showMenu property is ``true``

Multiple conditions can be used, and if one of them doesn’t return true the condition stops evaluation.